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Travel Belitung, how the origins of granite and stone in Belitung satam?

Travel Belitung, how the origins of granite and stone in Belitung satam?

Before answering the question in the title above, here is a training module for the planning and development of the West Geotourism organized in cooperation UNDP, Disbudpar Bangka-Belitung, and the Center for Tourism Planning and Development (P-P2Par) ITB, September 2013.
The answer to the origin of it can be found in Part II.
Similarly, in this article use the term "Belitong Island" instead of "West" as was believed. After the success of the book Rainbow translated into 64 languages in nearly 100 countries, the author Andrea Hirata possible Belitung urgent change to the origin of the original name: Belitong . The name of the new aspirations and probably has not been formalized. However, many people already use, including for the training. However administratively fixed Belitung name used as the name of Bangka-Belitung and East Belitung Regency and Belitung.
Photos of the lighthouse P. Galangal: look bongkah2 granite align in a straight line is actually controlled by the cracks in the body batholiths (Photo: BB)
Module Development Geotourism Belitong Island Area
Purpose :
Provides insight into the potential geological resources Belitung Island as a tourist attraction as well as its potential to become the mainstay of national geoparks, even globally under UNESCO GGN membership.
Participants can:
  1. Understand that the geological resources potential for tourism.
  2. Knowing the advantages and geological Belitong Island waters.
  3. Recognizing the potential appeal of Geotourism in Pulau Belitung DSK.
  4. Recognizing the important attributes Geotourism Belitong Island DSK.
  5. Understanding the critical factors in the development of Geotourism Belitong Island DSK.
  6. Recognizing the potential Belitong Island to become a national geopark.
Time: 105 minutes tuition
I. Resources Geology s as Potential Tourism
Geotourism ( Geotourism ) is a relatively new vocabulary in national tourism. The term is less popular than ecotourism ( ecotourism ), or agro-tourism for example. What is Geotourism or Geotourism ? The term Geotourism appeared no older than the mid-1990s. A geology expert from Buckinghamshire Chilterns University in England named Tom Hose expected to be among the first to actively introduce the term. It's like writing on the Geological Society in 1996, a paper entitled " Geotourism, tourists can become casual or rock hounds: Geology on your doorstep ".
But for public consumption, it may be expected that the activities Geotourism began to grow since the rise of the backpacker ( back-pack tourists ) in the 1980s. A paper written by Jane James, 1993 in a conference entitled "Promoting Earth Sciences" in Southampton, England, for example, still uses the term geological tourism ( geological tourism ) instead of Geotourism .
Tom Hose followed other geologiawan friends in Europe clearly based his Geotourism based on geology. GM TIMČÁK from the Technical University of Košice, Slovakia also defines geology Geotourism aspect, namely as a tourist destination tourism activities based on the character of geological, geomorphological, and the natural environment.
From Europe it was then that the term "natural garden" ( Geopark ), which is a conservation area that protects the natural heritage unique geological objects, rare, valuable, interesting, and important. Under the UNESCO network, the world has been formed 100 garden earth (global geopark) is the main attraction and the main Geotourism destination. Asia has been pioneered in China, followed by Malaysia. Earth Island Park Lodge, since 2006 officially became the first natural park in Southeast Asia under the UNESCO network. Indonesia, which has many unique geological phenomenon, far behind the neighboring country, and new GGN recognition in 2012 through Global Earth Garden Batur ( Batur Global Geopark ) on the island of Bali.
If Europe, followed by Australia, based on the geology Geotourism as a basis, the United States is slightly different. Tourism and Travel Industry Association of the United States, TIA (Travel Industry Association of America) Geotourism defined as "tourism continues to develop character geographical area visits, including the natural environment, cultural, aesthetic values, and the local community".
National Geographic Foundation defines Geotourism is similar to the TIA, which is "tourism that supports the geographical character of a place its environment, culture, heritage, aesthetics, and the well-being of its people". Foundation National Geographic emphasize that Geotourism principled character building "sense of place " geographically to develop a tourist attraction that has local distinctiveness and provide the same benefits to tourists and the public. Indonesia itself is more likely to follow the European and Australian versions of the Geotourism associate with phenomena and geological character of a place.
II. Geology Belitong Island Area
The appearance of granite boulders in Namibe in the form of giant boulders attract attention. Geologically, giant granite boulders are actually part of a body of igneous rock which became the bedrock of western Indonesia called batholiths . The distribution of this granite is not only found in the Pacific Islands, but also appear in the Riau Islands to Peninsular Malaysia, as well as on the islands of Natuna. Also at these places, which are the bedrock beneath the island of Borneo to the South China Sea, including in the western part of Borneo, also made of granite.
Geologically, this granite rock Triassic to Cretaceous, or formed about 200 million years to 65 million years ago (Geological Map Sheet Belitung, Baharuddin and Sidarto, 1995). This rock is the result of magma freezing acidic, with a high silica content of more than 65%.
Geological Map Belitung (Baharuddin and Sidarto, 1995; P3G Bandung)
From a geological map shows that the oldest granite Triassic ( Triassic ) spread in the northwestern part of the Pacific Islands, including Tanjungtinggi Beach, Island of Guar and ginger. Outcrop with large blocks of berwara light gray, coarse to very coarse crystalline. Granite is rich in mineral cassiterite primary. Absolute age according to research Priem et al. 1975 (in Baharuddin and Sidarto, 1995) 208-245 million (Triassic).
Next granitic intrusions Jurassic age ( Jurassic ) scattered mainly in the southern part of Belitung, in Penyabong Beach, including Bukit He and Klumpang Beach. The granite on the geological map Adamelit he called with free gray to green, coarse-grained to very coarse and often found xenolith (another rock into the intrusion) and do not contain cassiterite. Absolute age according to research Priem et al. 1975 (in Baharuddin and Sidarto, 1995) 106-208 - 245 million (Jurassic).
Granite intrusion is the youngest Cretaceous ( Cretaceous ) spread in the northeast Pacific, in Burungmandi Beach and Mount Vent - Tanjung, the more intermediate and known as Granodiorit Burungmandi, and in limited distribution in Mount Kanetta and Air Dengong as Kanetta Quartz Diorite. The color is generally darker as more dark-colored feldspar mineral content. The details are not rude. Absolute age according to research Priem et al. 1975 (in Baharuddin and Sidarto, 1995) 115-106 million (Cretaceous).
All the intrusion of granite, granodiorite and diorite this through sedimentary rock first deposited on Time Paleozoic (Irmo-Carbon), the formation Kelapakampit form of alternating sandstone-claystone and inserts sedimentary other, as well as the formation Sharp as quartz sandstone with inserts siltstone. That is why both the formation of sedimentary rocks undergo metamorphosis that turned into metasedimen tougher. Besides these formations intruded by quartz veins was bringing primary ore mineral cassiterite.
In terms of mineralogy, if we observe granite, then we will see a lot of minerals that are easily recognizable, as are the brightly colored glass irregularly-shaped mineral called quartz. Other minerals that usually appear on the K-feldspar granite or orthoklas and plagioclase which is usually characterized by minerals elongated brown, pale pink, or white. Other minerals are biotite are pale brown with a thin flat shape that is also called as mica. Other minerals in a very small percentage of mafic minerals are dark-colored feldspar group, such as hornblende or pyroxene.
In some granite boulders, we also often find other stones are embedded in the granite. Stone is also another form of granite with a different color or texture. In geology stone embedded in the granite is called as a means xenolith foreign rock. The process of creation is when magma broke through on (intrusion), most other rocks intruded and bongkahannya split into magma. When all this magma hardens into a granite rock that fell into foreign magma solidifies that follow along the granite. Type granite with many xenolith usually also have forms coarse crystals. Granite as the term itself has called pegmatite.
II.1 The rise blocks of granite k e Surface
Granite frozen far below the Earth's surface at a depth of tens of kilometers. Classified into igneous rocks in the membnetuk batholiths. By tectonic processes, these rocks experienced the rapture, and some even breaking and cracking. As a result of tectonic processes that granite was coming far below the Earth's surface, the Earth's surface.
Batholiths, igneous rocks in (intrusion) formed in the depths of the Earth as a vast resource of granite in Bangka Belitung. See B and D on the image (Source: www.scoopweb.com)
During the adoption process of the Earth's granite, granite body deformed. His body was cracked. When the body of granite cracks appeared on the surface of the Earth, the processes of weathering and erosion or abrasion erode through the cracks. As a result of this process happens over and over for hundreds to thousands of years, granite appears on the surface as if a chunk of rock separated. Though the giant granite boulders are actually only the top of huge granite body that is below the surface of the Earth.
blocks of granite in Tanjungtinggi Beach, sebenanrnya batolitnya fused with the body. Looks like a separate because of erosion through the cracks. Here we see a line of cracks that are filled by quartz veins (quartz vein). Photo: BB
Information from divers around Belitung, said that the deep-underwater escarpment consists of steep slopes of granite that connect the islands to the other islands. The divers of information, confirmed that the geological information in fact, all granite bodies scattered in Bangka-Belitung, Riau Islands, Singapore, Malaya, Borneo and South under the South China Sea, Natuna Island and as the West converge. In geology known as batholiths as described at the beginning of this article.
II.2 Establishment of Tin
Tin is a wealth of mineral resources Bangka - Belitung, also brought by granite. Granite certain tin-containing mineral known as cassiterite mineral chemical compound composed of oxide SnO 2 . Mineral cassiterite, which is still in the rock referred to as primary minerals. Large concentrations accumulate in the body but are not limited granite, but spread widely in the body of granite. In addition, for extracting, separating the mineral cassiterite from granite rock forming minerals other, the process is very difficult.
But nature has worked in such a way that the separation took place hundreds to thousands of years. Granite weathering process causes the body to come to the surface which is generally hard, becomes soft and breaks down into the sandy soil. By the process of erosion, the software part of this indestructible and carried by the flow of flushing water towards the lower slopes. Finally sandy silt erosion granite hills will be deposited in the river valleys. By the time the rocks break down into the soil, mineral cassiterite itself apart and carried by the water, and deposited in sands of the river with more general form of quartz sand.
Because almost all the hills in Bangka Belitung Island is granite, the rivers that disgorge from the granite hills and Plank carry cassiterite cassiterite deposits in the total abundance. That way, nature has separated the sand sand mineral cassiterite with other stones, usually quartz sand. Live miners now easily separate the weight of sand cassiterite larger with more sand is relatively lighter.
II.3 Ice Age
In the geological history during the Last Glacial Period Wurm, sea water in Indonesia is estimated to have receded 140 m below sea level now. At low tide it is, Bangka - Belitung become like the tops of high mountains, while the island of Borneo and Java Sea as well as the South China Sea to the mainland a vast inland areas. The rivers that flow in the square (which is now a submarine) if tipped from Bangka - Belitung, would bring cassiterite deposits as well, ranging from the lower slopes, and perhaps by far downstream in rivers ancient.
When the Ice Age ended and the sea in evolution up to the surface elevation of now, all terrain and ancient rivers that are now submerged beneath the sea. That's why tin sand mining still continues to lunge toward the pursuit of offshore ancient river channels that have been submerged.
II.4 Mineral Rare Earth
Or rare earth minerals Rare Earth Minerals (REE) are minerals found in nature are very few. But now, REE much coveted for the electronics and computer industries, mainly silicon and titanium. Of Bangka-Belitung, these two elements is expected to spill mixed with quartz sand. Now even considered quartz sand mining waste from tin.
In the case of the purchase of "waste" of sand by Singkep Singapore, Riau, there are suspicions that it is eyeing Singapore as compared REE its sand is reported only to reclaim the beach. Of course this needs to be investigated further, but from now on we have to be careful if there are other countries that are interested in buying large quartz sand at low prices which we think of as waste.
II.5. Batu Satam
Batu Satam very famous in Belitong. Monument in Simpang Lima City Tanjungpandan Iconic Satam stone giant. Colored stones blackened with holes sold very expensive. For example, a marble-sized pebble stone Satam offered at Rp 1 or 2 million. Why is it so expensive?
Satam stone formation (tektites) of ejecta produced as a result of the blow meteorites / asteroids that fall to Earth (Source www.tulane.edu)
It is very hard to find Satam stone, either in K. and elsewhere on Earth. The events are very rare because they relate to events meteorites fall to Earth. But so far the community has always considered Belitong Satam stone as fragments of the meteorite. Though Satam stone is actually a fraction of the Earth's surface is hit by unusually powerful than the meteorite that fell from space. When lacing the memburaikan soil and rock in the Earth's surface, they Asked and suffered a meltdown as a result of very high temperatures and then froze again as Satam stone, or in geological terms is tektites ( tektite ; from the Greek that means 'melted').
Here's how the formation of tektites (stone Satam) translated free from wikipedia: tektites consists of debris terrestrial (Earth) formed during the formation of the crater caused by a meteorite hit. During extreme conditions created by the blow that came from outer space, the impact of hypervelocity (very high speed), soil, sediment or rock in the Earth's surface either melt, vaporize, or a combination of both, ejected from the crater of a meteorite hit. After ejection from the crater, molten liquid material that forms the millimeter to centimeter when re-entering the atmosphere, and then rapidly cooled to form tektites. They can be thrown up to hundreds or even thousands of kilometers away from the impact site.
Discussions with Ma'rufin Sudibyo in social networking, astronomers working at the Office of Religious Kebumen, Central Java, said that theoretically every collision of celestial bodies do produce tektites. But the reality is quite a bit of tektites, which are still found around the crater at the moment of the collision. The youngest tektites found in Wabar, Saudi Arabia formed less than two centuries ago. Traces of the crater is still there even though the sand is almost ar-Rub 'al-Khali. Of the more than 180 pieces of product structure collision of celestial bodies that have been identified and have a valid, not all as fortunate as Wabar.
At this time, in general, there are only three craters celestial collision products that still contain tektites around him, the Chesapeake Bay (+/- 35 million years of age, diameter 95 km) in the US, Ries (+/- 14 million years, diameter 24 km) in Germany, and  Bosumtwi (+/- 1 million years, the diameter of 10 km). Population tektites largest in Australasia, covering almost the entire South East Asia, Australia and parts of the Indian Ocean and formed 0.8 million years ago, but here not yet found the location of the collision crater.
Batu Satam is technically called tektites and bilitonit . It is part of the Australasian tektites, formed +/- 0.8 million years ago. Bilitonit still family (and the rest) with javanit in Java (eg exposed in CRF) and tektites-Muong Nong in Indochina. Muong Nong tektites-unique, because it is much heavier (up to 20 kg) and layered, which indicates the position of the potter, not far from the location of the distribution of these tektites.
III. Attractions in Pulau Belitung Potential Geotourism DSK
Newsome (2005) explains that the appeal could be a form of Geotourism somewhere geological and geological processes. Furthermore, Newsome explained that there are three Geotourism scale appeal, that the macro-scale (eg Grand Canyon, USA), meso-scale (Wave Rock, Australia), and micro (fossil beds, UK). In more detail, the forms of geological and geological processes can be a tourist attraction can be seen in the picture below.
Referring to the definitions that have been developed, Geotourism also includes aspects of cultural, environmental, and social communities. Therefore, the potential cultural, environmental, social and community-related forms and geological processes can be a place of attraction Geotourism.
Bangka Belitung Islands since ancient times been known as the largest producer of tin, not only in Indonesia, but also in the world. History and culture of Namibe is also strongly linked to the potential of its natural resources as a producer of tin. As explained above, blocks of granite monster that has attracted attention in Namibe mineral containing tin be the biggest natural riches of Namibe. Potential its unique natural formations with giant granite boulders and formations of its own natural, historical discovery of tin, tin manufacturing, tin-cultural society, to the post-mining landscape is a tourist attraction that sell high value in Namibe. Belitung Island as one of the two main islands of Bangka-Belitung have geologic shape of giant granite boulders that are unique compared to other islands.
Belitung Island and the surrounding area has potential appeal as Geotourism is, namely:
Kaolin pit lake Murai
Kaolin pit lake is located at Jalan Murai Murai, 6 km from Tanjung Pandan. The lake is formed by kaolin mining. Cover white kaolin soil at the surface and at the bottom of the lake water color becomes bluish. The shape of the kaolin lake and the surrounding environment as well as the formation of the lake is the main attraction of potential Geotourism.
Ceramic hollow Amusement Park
Amusement Park located in hollow ceramic rod Lesong, Tanjung Pandan and is 5 km from Tanjung Pandan. This amusement park is a place of recreation that utilize ceramic vault lake as its main attractions. Story development process vault into a recreational park attraction potential Geotourism.
Billiton Hotel and Ho Toapekong A Joen
Hotel located in Downtown Tanjung Pandan is the former residence of heritage buildings Captain Captain Ho A Joen as the first Chinese in Dublin. The arrival of Captain China is strongly associated with the mining and processing of lead in Belitung Island. Toapekong building is unique because of the beauty of jade with various symbols and meaning.
Government Museum Belitung District Museum is located at Jalan Melati, Tanjung Latent re-named the Museum of Geology This particular store different types of rocks and mockups that illustrate the history of tin mining exploration. The museum was built on the initiative of Dr. Osbenger a geologist citizen of Austria in 1962, which at the time served in Belitung Tin Mining Unit.
Fortress site Kuehn fort was built by Captain Kuehn in 1823 and is located in the village of Ai Berutu Pangkalalang, Tanjung Pandan. The fort was used to replace the castle built by the De La Motte in Tanjung Simba, pile. Originally, the fort was the residence of government officials and mining colonial pioneers before the building emplasment. Currently the only remaining former bastion at the southeast corner.
Berahu hill hill resort of Lech is located in the village of Tanjung Binga which is about 18 Km from Tanjung Pandan. Berahu Hill Beach is a white sandy beach dotted with granite rocks. Form granite and the formation processes can be developed as an attraction Geotourism.
Kelayang Cape Coast Cape Coast Kelayang is one of the coastal tourist attraction in the village Keciput, Sijuk and is 27 km from Kota Tanjung Pandan. Cape Coast area Kelayang has teluk.Tepat shaped stretch of beach across from the beach, tourists can see directly in the distance Bird Island which is the mascot Tanjung Kelayang of a pile of granite resembling a bird's head. On this beach every year in October serve as the central point for yachter maxi yacht belonging to the Sail Indonesia.
Tanjung Tinggi Beach Pantai Tanjung Tinggi is the beach with granite rocks looming large in size. The beach is located at the village of Tanjung Tinggi and is 31 km from Kota Tanjung Pandan.
Bird Island Bird Island is an island with a unique set of rocks, one of which resembles a bird's head. The island is located in the village of Tanjung Binga and within 2 nautical miles from Tanjung Pandan.

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